ECZEMA | ATOPIC DERMATITIS
Eczema/ Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition
AD disproportionately affects African Americans compared to other races.
It can present with itchy reddish-purple, brown, dark, scaly, sometimes thicked patches and plaques anywhere on the body. Classic AD does occur on flexor surfaces. Darker-skinned patients tend to present with more "follicular prominence", small bumps on the trunk and extensor surfaces, thickened plaques and nodules, and dark patches.
AD is thought to be caused by the interplay between defects in skin proteins reducing the ability to hold on to moisture, autoimmunity, and environmental triggers (e.g. diet, pollution, smoking)
Management includes avoiding triggers, gentle skin care, frequent moisturization, topical anti-inflammatory agents (e.g. corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors), oral anti-inflammatory medications (e.g. cyclosporine, methotrexate), phototherapy, intravenous immunoglobulin, interferon-gamma, and biologics (dupilumab),
- Ait-Khaled, N. et al., J. Allergy 2007, 62, 247
- Kaufman BP, et. al, Atopic dermatitis in diverse racial and ethnic groups-Variations in epidemiology, genetics, clinical presentation and treatment. Exp Dermatol. 2018 Apr;27(4):340-357