REFERENCES

​INTRODUCTION: 

  1.  Van Voorhees AS, Enos CW. Diversity in Dermatology Residency Programs. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2017 Oct;18(2):S46-S49.

  2. https://www.census.gov/

  3. Downie, J. Diversity in the Dermatology Workforce: What Can We Do?.  Practical Dermatol. 2019 July

  4. Gathers RC, Mahan MG. African American women, hair care and health barriers. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014;7:26-29.

  5. Komaromy M, Grumbach K, Drake M, Vranizan K, Lurie N, Keane D, et al. The Role of Black and Hispanic Physicians in Providing Health Care for Underserved Populations. N Engl J Med. 1996; 334 (20):1305–10.

  6.  Moy E, Bartman BA. Physician Race and Care of Minority and Medically Indigent Patients. JAMA J Am Med Assoc. 1995; 273(19):1515–20. 3. Laditka JN. Physician supply, physician diversity, and outcomes of primary health care for older persons in the United States. Health Place. 2004; 10(3):231–44. 

  7. Lett L. A. et al. Declining racial and ethnic representation in clinical academic medicine: A longitudinal study of 16 US medical specialties. 2018; PLoS ONE 13(11)

 

ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS

- Brady MF, Rawla P. Acanthosis Nigricans. StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Nov 8

- Popa ML, Popa AC, Tanase C, Gheorghisan-Galateanu AA. Acanthosis Nigricans: To Be or Not to Be Afraid. Oncol Lett. 2019 May;17(5):4133-4138.

 

ACNE

Alexis AF, et. al,  Treating Acne in Patients With Skin of Color.  Med Surg. 2018 Jun;37(3S):S71-S73. 

 

ACNE KELOIDALIS NUCHAE

- Maranda EL, et al.  Treatment of Acne Keloidalis Nuchae: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2016 Sep;6(3):363-78. doi: 10.1007/s13555-016-0134-5. Epub 2016 Jul 18. Review. 

- Al Aboud DM, Badri T. Acne, Keloidalis Nuchae. StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan-.2017 Dec 3.

 

 

DISCOID LUPUS

- Gro¨nhagen CM et al. Increased risk of cancer among 3663 patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus: a Swedish nationwide cohort study. Br J Dermatol 2012;166:1053e9.

- Jessop S et al.  Drugs for discoid lupus erythematosus.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 May 5;5:CD002954.

- McDaniel B, Tanner LS.  Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid.  StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan 2018 Sep 26. 

 

ECZEMA

- Ait-Khaled, N. et al., J.  Allergy 2007, 62, 247

- Kaufman BP, et. al, Atopic dermatitis in diverse racial and ethnic groups-Variations in epidemiology, genetics, clinical presentation and treatment.  Exp Dermatol. 2018 Apr;27(4):340-357

 

HAIR LOSS 

  1. - Alexis AF, Sergay AB, Taylor SC. Common dermatologic disorders in skin of color: a comparative practice survey. Cutis. 2007;80:387–394

  2. Gathers RC, Mahan MG. African American women, hair care and health barriers. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014;7:26-29.

- Heath, C. Hair Loss in Skin of Color Patients.  Cutis. 2019 April;103(04):231-232

-  Gathers RC, Lim HW. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: past, present, and future. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60:660–668

 

KELOIDS

References: 

- McGinty S, Siddiqui WJ.  Keloid. 2020 Jan 10. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan–.

- Betarbet U, Blalock TW. Keloids: A Review of Etiology, Prevention, and Treatment J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2020 Feb;13(2):33-43.

 

PSEUDOFOLLICULTIS BARBAE

- Ogunbiyi A. Pseudofolliculitis barbae; current treatment options. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2019 Apr 16;12:241-247.

 

PSORIASIS

- Kerr GS, et al., Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis in African-American patients--the need to measure disease burden.  Clin Rheumatol. 2015 Oct;34(10):1753-9

- McMichael AJ, et al., Psoriasis in African-Americans: a caregivers' survey.  J Drugs Dermatol. 2012 Apr;11(4):478-82.

 

SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS

- Tucker D, Masood S. Seborrheic Dermatitis.  2019 Dec 28. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan–.

- Adalsteinsson JA, et al., An update on the microbiology, immunology and genetics of seborrheic dermatitis.

Exp Dermatol. 2020 Mar 3. doi: 10.1111/exd.14091

Sanders MGH, Pardo LM, Ginger RS, Kiefte-de Jong JC, Nijsten T  Association between Diet and Seborrheic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study.  J Invest Dermatol. 2019 Jan;139(1):108-114.

 

SKIN CANCER

  1. American Cancer Society. Facts & figures 2018. American Cancer Society; 2018.

  2. Wu, X.C., Eide, M.J., King, J., et al., 2011. Racial and ethnic variations in incidence and survival of cutaneous melanoma in the United States, 1999–2006. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 65 (5 Suppl 1), S26–S37 (Nov).

  3. Boczar D, et. al.  Analysis of Melanoma in African American Patients in the United States.

  4. Anticancer Res. 2019 Nov;39(11):6333-6337. 

  5. Hogue L, Harvey VM. Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Cutaneous Melanoma in Skin of Color Patients.  Dermatol Clin. 2019 Oct;37(4):519-526. 

  6. Buchanan Lunsford N, Berktold J, Holman DM, Stein K, Prempeh A, Yerkes A. Skin cancer knowledge, awareness, beliefs and preventive behaviors among black and hispanic men and women.  Prev Med Rep. 2018 Oct 6;12:203-209.

 

VITILIGO

- Ezzedine K, Eleftheriadou V, Whitton M, van Geel N. Vitiligo. Lancet. 2015 Jul 4;386(9988):74-84.